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楼主:飞度乐园 时间:2017年10月24日 08:16:27 点击:0 回复:0
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US technology executives seeking to ingratiate themselves with China’s leadership are known for making big entrances, and Tim Cook set the bar high yesterday after he arrived in Beijing to fanfare over Apple’s bn investment in the Didi Chuxing ridehailing app.很多人知道,寻求讨好中国领导层的美国科技业高管会高规格地访问中国。蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)昨日在这方面进一步抬高了标杆,他到达北京,大张旗鼓地为苹果10亿美元投资打车软件滴滴出行(Didi Chuxing)造势。He took a Didi car to his first destination, an Apple store in Beijing’s Wang-fujing shopping district, accompanied by Jean Liu, the Chinese company’s president.在滴滴总裁柳青(Jean Liu)的陪同下,他乘坐一辆滴滴汽车前往第一个目的地,位于北京王府井购物区的一家苹果商店。“We are very proud of that investment,” Mr Cook told journalists as he posed with a host of local internet entrepreneurs.“我们很自豪做出了这笔投资,”库克一边与许多中国互联网企业家合影,一边告诉记者。“Didi has 14m drivers, 300m users — actually 300m and one now, because Jean and I took a Didi ride here this morning,” he said.“滴滴拥有1400万司机和3亿用户——现在实际上有3亿加1个用户,因为柳青和我今早是乘坐滴滴车辆来到这里的,”他说。Beijing is a favoured destination for US tech chiefs whose companies are in dispute with China’s leadership. And high-profile shows of goodwill tend to be made in as public a way as possible.对于那些与中国领导层存在纠纷的美国科技公司,北京是它们的掌舵人喜欢访问之处。他们往往会尽可能公开地高调示好。In March Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook — which remains blocked to China’s 700m internet users — was derided online as a “Zuck-up” when he jogged through Tiananmen Square in a haze of choking pollution.今年3月,Facebook的创始人马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)——中国的7亿互联网用户仍无法访问Facebook网站——在雾霾污染中跑步经过天安门广场,由此在网上被嘲笑为“Zuck-up”。He also had a meeting with Liu Yunshan, the country’s propaganda chief.他还会晤了中国最高宣传官员刘云山。After Microsoft’s offices were raided by Chinese government investigators as part of a tax probe, a visit by Satya Nadella followed, after little more than the standard visa waiting period, in September 2014.2014年9月,作为税务调查的一部分,微软(Microsoft)办公室遭到中国调查人员的突击检查。在标准的签等待期过后,微软首席执行官萨蒂亚#8226;纳德拉(Satya Nadella)便访问了北京。Senior executives of Qualcomm have made Beijing a regular destination since the US semiconductor company was targeted in a 2014 antitrust investigation that resulted in a bn fine the following year.自从高通(Qualcomm)在2014年的反垄断调查中成为目标以来,这家美国半导体公司的高管频频访问北京。次年高通被罚款10亿美元。In Mr Cook’s case, the question is how much of Apple’s investment in Didi is motivated by business sense, and how much of it is an effort to smooth things over with the leadership in China, where the iPhone maker has faced a series of setbacks this year. In April the group’s iTunes services became unavailable in China and in May Apple lost an intellectual property court case against a little-known leather accessories manufacturer that uses “IPHONE” as a trademark on its purses and wallets.就库克而言,问题在于苹果投资滴滴在多大程度上是出于商业考量,在多大程度上是一种旨在缓和与中国领导层关系的努力。今年,iPhone已遭到了一系列挫折。4月,苹果的iTunes视频务在中国无法使用,5月,苹果在一起知识产权纠纷案中输给了一家不知名的皮具配饰制造商,该公司把“IPHONE”商标用在皮夹和钱包类商品上。In contrast Facebook won a trademark case days later against a Chinese company using the brand name “face book”, in a sign that official attitudes could be softening towards the world’s largest social network.与此形成对照的是,Facebook在几天后的商标案中告赢了一家使用“face book”品牌的中国企业,表明中国官方对这家世界最大社交网络公司的态度可能在软化。Apple is also grappling with declining iPhone sales, which fell by a sharp 26 per cent in China last quarter, compared with a 16 per cent overall fall.苹果也在努力应对iPhone销量下降的局面。上一季度,苹果在华销量大减26%,总体销量则减少16%。Jia Jinghua, who covers the domestic technology industry for the Sina Tech news agency, said: “Cook is clearly keen to curry favour with Chinese authorities and with Chinese markets.为新浪科技(Sina Tech)报道中国国内科技行业的贾敬华说:“库克非常急切地讨好中国当局和中国市场。”“He will take advantage of the latest investments into Didi to pay visits to key ministries.”“他将利用最近投资滴滴的机会,拜访中国的关键部委。”Apple declined to comment on Mr Cook’s China itinerary.苹果拒绝就库克的中国之行置评。The visit is his eighth to China since taking over as Apple chief, and is unlikely to be his last.这是库克接任苹果首席执行官以来第8次访问中国,也不太可能是他最后一次来中国。As one user of Weibo, China’s version of Twitter, commented: “Cook, how many Didi rides does it take to make back bn?”正如中国版Twitter新浪微的一名用户所:“库克,滴滴汽车载客多少次才能赚回10亿美元?” /201605/444179Lao Zi(571 B. C.~471 B. C.), famous Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism, was born at Ku Prefecture (today#39;s Luyi County of Henan Province) in the later years of the Spring and Autumn Period. His real name was Li Er and his courtesy name was Dan.老子(公元前571年~公元前471年),姓李,名耳,字聃,楚国苦县(今河南鹿邑县)人,生活时代约和孔子同时或略早,道家学派的创始人。Lao Zi was an older contemporary of Confucius and once worked as an archivist in the imperial library of the Zhou Dynasty before he retired from public life. It is widely believed that he was the author of the Taoist scripture Lao Zi (also known as Tao Te Ching, or Dao De Jing, roughly translated as Book of the Way and Its Virtue). Slightly more than 5,000 characters, this book is considered as one of the most influential texts on Chinese philosophy and religion.曾做过周朝守藏史,后退隐,作《老子》五千言,思想的核心是“道”。The core of Lao Zi#39;s thought is ;Tao;(the Way ), by which he refered to the condition of the universe before the creation of the heaven and the earth. Therefore, it is from Tao that all the elements of the universe are derived. Reversal enables Tao to have a circular movement, that is, when the development of anything brings it to one extreme, a reversal to the other extreme takes place.他把天地未生之前的浑沌状态称为“道”,道是天地之根,天下之母,万物的本源,道周而复始地运动着,其基本运动形式是“反者道之动”,即矛盾的对立面各向其相反的方向转化。Using Tao as the point of departure of his philosophy, Lao Zi believed that soft and weak overcome hard and strong (“Of all things yielding and weak in the world, none is more so than water. But for attacking what is unyielding and strong, nothing is superior to it.”). He upheld the idea of stillness and tranquility (“Attain utmost vacuity, hold fast to quietude.”) and suggested that only through “cleansing and purifying the distracting thoughts; can one understand one#39;s true self. For him, it was more important to “see the simplicity, to realize one#39;s true nature, to cast off selfishness, and to temper desire;.以“道”为理论基础,在人生观上,老子贵无,尚柔,“天下莫柔于水,而攻坚强者莫之能胜”;主静,“致虚极,守静笃”;要对心灵“涤除玄鉴”,从而返自观照内心的本明;要“见素抱朴,少私寡欲”,保持一颗赤子之心。Lao Zi attached importance to the withdrawal in oneself, especially through the cultivation and regulation of mentality with one#39;s own efforts.老子执著于个体生命的自我保全,特别是精神状态的自我调谐。Politically, Lao Zi advocated ruling by non-action or inaction, on which he wrote that “I take no action and people are reformed. I enjoy peace and people become honest. I do nothing and people become rich. I have no desires and people return to the good and simple life.” And “If you try to change it (the universe), you will ruin it. If you try to hold it, you will lose it.” Lao Zi also took an anti-war stance: “Weapons are the tools of fear; a decent man will avoid them, except in the direst necessity.”在政治观上,老子主张无为而治,“我无为而民自化,我好静而民自正,我无事而民自富,我无欲而民自朴”,“为者败之,知者失之。”反对战争,认为“兵者,不祥之器,不得已而用之”。The idealistic state in his description is naturalistic, even primitive and in isolation: “Let your community be small, with only a few people.”老子的理想社会是自然原始、封闭隔绝的‘小国寡民”社会。Lao Zi believed that the force behind the motion of the universe is overwhelming: “What is higher is pulled down, and what is lower is raised up; what is taller is shortened, and what is thinner is broadened; Nature#39;s motion decreases those who have more than they need and increases those who need more than they have.”在天道观上,老子认为,天是有意志的,天意决定一切。天意向善,同情弱者,损有余而补不足,“高者抑之,下者举之”。Lao Zi#39;s pursuit of vacuity and action through non-action echoes the reality of his time, a period torn by ceaseless wars among states. His philosophy reflects the exploration of an intellectual for the ultimate solution of the social order and individual freedom.总之,老子清静无为的思想是时代的产物,在列国纷争的春秋战国时期,是对现实的一种澄清与批判,他的哲学观反映了当时一部分知识分子对未来社会走向与治国方式的一种探索。 /201508/396454

It is one of the most beloved and famous of all songs, belted out at countless gatherings for infant and octogenarian alike. Yet “Happy Birthday to You,” far from being as free as a piece of cake at a party, is actually considered private property.这首歌家喻户晓、备受喜爱。下至学步婴儿,上至耄耋老人,无数人的聚会上都有这首歌高声响起。不过,《祝你生日快乐》并不像派对上的蛋糕一样免费,它的版权其实属于私人。A federal lawsuit filed by a group of independent artists is trying to change that, and lawyers in the case, in a filing last week, said they had found evidence in the yellowed pages of a nearly century-old songbook that proves the song’s copyright — first issued in 1935 — is no longer valid.一群独立艺术家发起联邦诉讼,试图改变这个局面,本案原告律师们在上周提交的一份文件中声称,他们在一本近百年前的旧歌集泛黄的纸页间找到了据,明这首歌的版权已经过了保护期(1935年初次登记注册)。 A judge may rule in the case in coming weeks. If the song becomes part of the public domain, it would cost the Warner Music Group, which holds the rights, millions of dollars in lost licensing fees. It would also be a victory for those who see “Happy Birthday to You” as emblematic of the problems with copyright — a song that has long since survived anyone involved in its creation, yet is still owned by a corporation that charges for its use.接下来的几个星期里,法官将会对此案做出判决。如果这首歌属于公共版权,它目前的版权所有者华纳音乐集团将会损失数百万美元的版权许可费用。此外,还有许多人认为,《祝你生日快乐》堪称现行版权制度中各种问题的象征,这首歌所涉及的所有创作者均已作古,但它的版权却仍然属于一家大公司,使用它还要向公司缴纳费用。此案如果胜诉,对于这些人来说也不啻为一种胜利。“It is one of the few songs that you’ve heard for as long as you’ve lived, and you kind of think of it as a folk song,” said Robert Brauneis, a professor at the George Washington University Law School who in 2010 published a skeptical study of the copyright of “Happy Birthday to You.”“几乎没有什么歌能让人听一辈子,这首歌就是其中之一,你觉得它应该是属于民歌,”乔治·华盛顿大学法律学院的罗伯特·布罗奈斯(Robert Brauneis)说,2010年,他就《祝你生日快乐》的版权问题发表了一份充满怀疑的研究报告。The case also highlights the centrality of copyright claims to media businesses like the music industry, where the question of who owns the rights to a song can be worth millions of dollars. Advocates for rigorous copyright laws point out that they protect musicians as well as the companies that represent them. Still, their interpretation can rattle the industry; that was the case in March, when a jury found that Robin Thicke’s song “Blurred Lines” had copied “Got to Give It Up,” a 1977 hit by Marvin Gaye.这个案子也凸显出,对于音乐行业这样的媒体业来说,对版权的要求可谓重中之重——在音乐行业内,一首歌的版权归属价值成百上千万美元。持严密的版权法的人指出,这些法律保护音乐人的利益,也保护代表音乐人的公司的利益。但是他们的解释也会令这个行业感到不安;比如今年三月,法庭判决罗宾·西克(Robin Thicke)的歌《含糊其辞》(Blurred Lines)抄袭了马文·盖伊(Marvin Gaye)1977年的金曲《要放弃了》(Got to Give It Up)。Part of the dispute over “Happy Birthday” derives from the song’s byzantine publishing history. Its familiar melody was first published in 1893 as “Good Morning to All,” written by Mildred Hill and her sister Patty, a kindergarten teacher in Kentucky. Birthday-themed variations began to appear in the early 1900s, and soon “Happy Birthday to You” was a phenomenon, popping up in films and hundreds of thousands of singing telegrams in the 1930s.围绕着《生日快乐》的争议有部分是来自这首歌错综复杂的出版史。1893年出版了一首名为《大家早上好》(Good Morning to All)的歌,与它旋律颇为类似,创作者是米尔德里德·希尔(Mildered Hill)和她的姊——肯塔基州的幼儿园老师帕蒂(Patty)。生日快乐主题的演变版本于20世纪初出现;30年代,《祝你生日快乐》开始风靡一时,出现在许多电影里,乃至数十万“唱歌电报”中(由歌手为接收电报的人唱出电文内容,是一种礼物——译注)。Its appearance in a scene in Irving Berlin’s show “As Thousands Cheer” in 1933 led to a lawsuit, and in 1935 the copyright for “Happy Birthday to You” was registered by the Clayton F. Summy Company, the Hill sisters’ publisher. The song changed hands over the years, and Warner acquired it in 1988 when buying the song’s owner, Birchtree Ltd., as part of a publishing deal reported at the time to be worth million. According to some estimates, the song now generates about million in licensing income each year, mostly from its use in television and film.1933年,这首曲子出现在欧文·柏林(Irving Berlin)的演出里,名为《千万欢呼》(As Thousands Cheer),引发了一场法律诉讼;1935年,《祝你生日快乐》的版权被希尔姊的出版商克莱顿·F·萨米公司(Clayton F. Summy Company)注册。多年来,这首歌的版权几经易手,1988年,华纳公司买下了这首歌的所有者伯奇特里有限公司(Birchtree Ltd.),作为一项出版合约中的一部分,据当时的报道,该交易价值在250万美元。据估计,如今,《祝你生日快乐》每年为华纳公司带来200万美元的许可收益,大都来自电视和电影中的使用。Yet while the song is widely performed at private gatherings, its copyright status leads to peculiar workarounds in public settings. Chain restaurants often come up with their own songs to avoid paying licensing fees, according to Mr. Brauneis’s paper. On live television, it is not uncommon for an impromptu performance to be quickly silenced by producers.诚然,这首歌在私下场合广为使用,但它的版权状况在公共环境下却导致了各种应变之道。根据布罗奈斯的文章,(有人庆祝生日时)连锁餐厅经常播放自己的歌曲,避免为播放这首歌付费用。在电视现场节目里,如果有嘉宾即兴演唱这首歌,制作人就赶快消音,这种事屡见不鲜。Jennifer Nelson, who is making a documentary about the song and first filed the lawsuit against Warner two years ago, said that the company charged her ,500 to use the song. The case, which has been joined by other artists and seeks class-action status, is being heard in federal court in Los Angeles. Plaintiffs want the song to be declared part of the public domain, and for Warner to return licensing fees dating to at least 2009.詹妮弗·纳尔逊(Jennifer Nelson)正在为这首歌拍摄一部纪录片,两年前正是她首次起诉华纳公司,她说,公司要求她为使用这首歌付1500美元。后来其他艺术家也加入进来共同起诉,洛杉矶联邦法庭已经受理这一案件。原告们希望这首歌可以被改判为属于公共版权,华纳公司则需退还至少到2009年为止他人付的许可费用。“Our clients want to give ‘Happy Birthday to You’ back to the public, which is what Patty Hill wanted all along,” said Mark C. Rifkin, a lawyer for the plaintiffs.“我们的客户希望把《祝你生日快乐》归还给公众,这也是帕蒂·希尔一直以来的愿望,”原告的一位律师马克·C·里夫金(Mark C. Rifkin)说。Warner, which declined to comment for this article, contends in court filings that its copyright is valid. The song also generates hundreds of thousands of dollars each year for a nonprofit group, the Association for Childhood Education International.华纳公司拒绝为本文接受采访,它在法律文书中主张,自己的版权是有效的。这首歌每年亦为非营利组织“国际儿童教育协会”(Association for Childhood Education International)带来数十万美元的收入。Yet “Happy Birthday to You” has long been a prime target for critics of the laws that regulate copyright. Thanks to an extension made under the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 — which was lobbied for heavily by Hollywood — the song remains under protection through 2030.其实《祝你生日快乐》早已是版权法批评者们的主要抨击对象。由于1998年通过的桑尼·波诺版权延长期法案(Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act,规定版权的保护期限是作者有生之年加死后70年,比伯尔尼公约规定的国际惯例多20年,1923年前的出版物均属公共版权——译注),版权保护期限得以延长(好莱坞做了大量院外游说,力主通过这一法案),因此这首歌直到2030年都在版权期保护之内。“The fact that ‘Happy Birthday to You’ is still under copyright is the most symbolic example of how copyright has expanded and overreached beyond its Constitutional purpose,” said Kembrew McLeod, a communications professor at the University of Iowa who has written about the song.“《祝你生日快乐》仍在版权保护期内,这是版权法过度扩张,达到违宪地步的最典型例子,”爱荷华大学传播学教授坎姆布鲁·麦克里奥德(Kembrew McLeod)为这首歌撰文写道。Mr. Brauneis contended in his 2010 study that the song’s copyright may not have been properly renewed when its initial term expired, in 1963. But lawyers for the plaintiffs in the “Happy Birthday” suit — for whom Mr. Brauneis said he was working as an unpaid consultant — now say they have proof of deeper problems.1963年,这首歌的版权期第一次到期,布罗奈斯在他2010年的那篇文章中主张,当时就不应当将它的版权期予以延长。但《生日快乐》一案的原告律师们(布罗奈斯为他们充当免费顾问)说,他们有据,可以揭示更深层次的问题。Last week, they submitted evidence that they called “a proverbial smoking gun”: a 1922 songbook containing “Good Morning and Birthday Song,” with the birthday lyrics in the third verse. While other songs in the book are given with copyright notices, “Good Morning and Birthday Song” says only that it appears through “special permission” of the Summy Company. Under the laws of the time, an authorized publication without proper copyright notice would result in forfeiture of the copyright, according to lawyers involved in the case. Furthermore, under the 1998 law, anything published before 1923 is considered part of the public domain.上星期,他们提交了一桩据,他们称之为“众所周知的冒烟火”:那是一本1922年的歌集,里面收录了名为《早安与生日歌》(Good Morning and Birthday Song)的歌曲,第三段是生日快乐的歌词。那本书里的所有歌曲都附上了版权声明,《早安与生日歌》则是经过萨米公司的“特别许可”才得以使用的。本案律师称,根据当时的法律,正式出版物如果没有版权声明,就会导致版权被没收。根据1998年的法律,任何1923年以前出版的作品均属公共版权领域。Warner argued that while earlier versions of the birthday song may have been published, they were not authorized by the sisters themselves. Also, no copyright covered “Happy Birthday,” the label argues, until it was registered in 1935, so there was no copyright to be invalidated in 1922.华纳公司称,尽管生日歌的若干早期版本可能早早就得以发表,但它们都未经过两本人授权。此外,公司声称,没有一项版权涵盖了《祝你生日快乐》,直至这首歌于1935年正式注册,所以,不存在失效的1922年版权。Both sides have asked for summary judgment, and the judge, George H. King of ed States District Court in Los Angeles, is expected to rule soon. Judge King could deny both motions and hold a trial — raising the possibility of a strange proceeding in which all principal witnesses are long dead.双方都要求做出简易程序判决(summary judgment),期望此案法官,美国洛杉矶地区法庭的乔治·H·金(George H. King)能够速战速决。金法官也可以否决双方的要求,举行庭审——这可能会很奇怪,因为所有关键人都早已身故。As part of the evidence submission last week, the plaintiffs included a paper trail showing how they tracked down the songbook. It started with electronically scanned images from Warner of a 1927 edition of the same book, but with the publisher’s crucial permission line about “Good Morning and Birthday Song” blurred. Lawyers for the plaintiffs searched for other copies of the book and found one at the University of Pittsburgh; a 1922 edition was also located.原告上周呈送的据中包括书面文件,追溯他们是怎样查找到那本歌集。一开始,他们在华纳找到那本歌集1927年版的电子扫描图片,但关于《早安与生日歌》最关键的出版者许可那一行是模糊的。原告律师开始寻觅这本书的其他版本,最后在匹兹堡大学找到了;而且还找到了1922年的版本。In a series of emails about the 1927 edition, a Pittsburgh librarian told Mr. Rifkin that the songbook had been found in a university storage facility.在一系列关于该书1927年版的电子邮件通信里,匹兹堡的图书管理员告诉里夫金,这本歌集是在一间大学的储藏室里找到的。“Here you go,” she wrote in sending it to him. “Surely the copyright hasn’t lasted this long.”“加油吧,”她在随书附上的邮件里写道,“版权肯定持续不了这么久。” /201508/396168

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