泰州市东方医院包皮手术的步骤
时间:2018年04月22日 18:49:04

Books and Arts; Opera review; Einstein on the beach;文艺;歌剧;沙滩上的爱因斯坦;Breaking the waves; An avant-garde opera on a rare world tour.乘风破浪;一部先锋歌剧正在进行世界巡演,机会难得。 THE music of “Einstein on the Beach” is so grand and epic—yet so mesmerising and repetitive—that it feels as if it were the soundscape of a dream. Indeed, much of this odd and wondrous opera, the work of Philip Glass and Robert Wilson, with some transcendent choreography from Lucinda Childs, seems to inhabit a liminal space, eerie and otherworldly. Clocking in at nearly five hours without an interval (viewers can come and go as they please), the production is less a work of entertainment than an experience.“沙滩上的爱因斯坦”的音乐如史诗般宏伟壮丽——同时循环重复,引人入胜——让人有置身梦中之感。这部由菲利普·格拉斯和罗伯特·威尔逊共同创作,经露辛达·蔡尔兹出色编排的奇特而绝妙的歌剧,在很大程度上仿佛令人真的来到了一个奇异的超凡的朦胧世界。演出时间几乎五个小时,中间没有休息(观众可以随意进出)。观赏这部作品与其说是,倒不如说是一种体验。“Einstein” stunned audiences at the opera’s premiere in Avignon 36 years ago; its narrative-free mesh of music, dance and drama inspired many to feel that they were witnessing something unprecedented. Word of mouth ensured “Einstein” enjoyed a sell-out tour in Europe, and then a hero’s welcome home in New York in late 1976, where the show filled every seat at the Metropolitan Opera. “The avant-garde has become official,” exclaimed a Met producer at the time.三十六年前,“爱因斯坦”在阿维尼翁的首演震惊了观众;它摆脱叙事的形式,将音乐、舞蹈和戏剧融为一体,这样的表演形式让很多人觉得自己正在观看一部前所未有的杰作。有了人们的口口相传,“爱因斯坦”在欧洲的巡演场场爆满。接着在1976年末,“爱因斯坦”到纽约演出,受到了凯旋英雄般的礼遇,大都会歌剧院座无虚席。“这部先锋歌剧已受到正式认可,”当时歌剧院的一位制作人激动地说。But the opera’s success did not mean it was profitable. As it happens, few operas make money and “Einstein” is quite a spectacle—even though it is often described as a landmark of minimalism. Its inaugural run may have made Messrs Glass and Wilson famous, but it also left them bankrupt. Not long after their Met triumph, Mr Glass went back to cab-driving in New York, struggling to make ends meet. This ordeal, together with the fact that this opera is uniquely demanding on performers and audience-members alike, has ensured that “Einstein” productions are rare.但是演出大获成功不代表这部歌剧有利可图。事实明,很少有歌剧能赚钱,而“爱因斯塔”正是一个奇特的典型——尽管它经常被形容为“极简主义”的里程碑。这部歌剧的首演或许让格拉斯先生和威尔逊先生声名大噪,却也让他们潦倒破产。在大都会歌剧院演出取得巨大成功后不久,格拉斯先生回到纽约开起了出租车,努力维持日常开销。这种艰苦的生活,再加上这部歌剧对表演者和观众的要求极高,使得“爱因斯坦”的演出次数非常少。So it is impressive that a new production of this unwieldy classic—the first in 20 years—is now making its way around the world, as part of a year-long celebration of Mr Glass’s 75th birthday. After appearances in France, Italy and Britain (where it was performed at the Barbican as part of the London 2012 Festival), its next stop is Toronto’s Sony Centre from June 8th to 10th.因此令人激动的是,这部制作庞大的经典之作,将作为格拉斯先生75岁生日为期一年的庆典活动的一部分,展开新一轮全球巡演,这是二十年来的第一次。结束了在法国、意大利和英国(在巴比肯作为伦敦2012年奥运会庆典活动的一部分进行演出)的演出之后,下一站它将在多伦多索尼索尼中心剧院演出,时间从6月8日到6月10日。Watching the show now, some of the scripted moments feel a little absurd. And Mr Wilson’s extravagant staging reinforces the opera’s reputation as a money pit. But the two extended dance segments are irrepressibly uplifting. And the meditative music, which is so technically challenging that Mr Glass originally had trouble finding performers for it, washes over listeners, as coolly vast and mysterious as the sea itself.现在看这部歌剧,一些有台词的场景会显得有点突兀。同时威尔逊先生奢华的舞台布景也验了该剧耗资庞大的名声不虚。但增加的两场舞蹈让人无法抑制激动的心情。还有那冥思的音乐对技术有极大的挑战,一开始格拉斯先生为寻找合适的演奏者颇费了一番周折。人们听着这音乐,仿佛置身于一片平静浩瀚而又神秘的大海之中。201206/187713

Shiny and safe, the goal of New York itself.又闪亮又安全,这也是纽约本身的目标。Three decades ago, both the city and the subway shared the bad reputation: dirty, unsafe and no place to be.三十多年前,城市和地铁都享有着坏名声:肮脏、不安全、无人问津的地方。New York cleaned up its image partly by cleaning up the subway.通过清理地铁,纽约重新清理了它的形象。At the Coney Island Yard, they do more than keep the trains running, they keep the Big Apple polished.在康尼岛,他们不只是让火车运营,他们还给大苹果抛光。No job too small, no job too big, lifetime guarantee, how can you beat it? Send us these troubles.没有太小的工作,没有太大的工作,寿命保,你怎么还在犹豫?告诉我们你的麻烦吧。On the subway, keeping car safe is only half the equation.在地铁上,保持车辆只是工作的一半。The system has more than 2600 switches to move trains from one track to another and more than 11,000 signals to control train traffic.该系统具有2600多个开关使列车移动到另一轨道,超过11000个信号来控制列车交通。The equipment is older than most New Yorkers.该设备的岁数比大多数纽约人还老。Much of it was installed before 1940. All together, more than 13,000 chances for something to go fatally wrong. New York cant take that chance.很多都是安装于1940年以前。合在一起, 对于致命错误有超过13000次机会解决。但纽约不能抓住这个机遇。To sidetrack catastrophe, maintenance workers go looking for trouble every day.对于侧线的灾难,维修人员每一天都在寻找麻烦。To find it, the crew themselves must venture into harms way.为了发现它,小组人员必须自己冒着受到伤害的危险。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174328

Males Rule in Costa Rican Wasp Species哥斯达黎加父系制度的黄蜂In most species of social insects, such as wasps, bees, and ants, the females rule. The females are the workers. They are the ones to go out and get the food, and they are also the ones to care for the queen, the larvae, and the nest in general. The males of these species of insects are typically lazy, and they bear the brunt of much abuse. They’re sometimes bitten, fed scraps, and chased out of the home for good by their sisters not long after they’re born.群居昆虫中大多奉行母系制度,比如黄蜂、蜜蜂、蚂蚁。群体里的工蜂是负责外出寻觅食物、照顾蜂王及幼虫并守卫蜂巢。而雄蜂通常都游手好闲,因此招来骂声一片。雄蜂有时候会被欺负,食不果腹,出生后不久被雌蜂赶出蜂巢觅食。Not only that, but among paper wasps in the ed States the females practice what scientists call “male stuffing.” When a worker brings food home to the nest, her sisters shove their brothers headfirst into empty nest cells to prevent them from consuming any of the food.科学家发现美国胡蜂群体里的雌蜂盛行的是“包夹雄蜂”。当工蜂运送食物回蜂巢,雌蜂就把雄蜂头挡在空蜂房里,不让雄蜂享受劳动果实。Behavior like this, however, is reversed in a Costa Rican wasp species. The males in this species not only attack their sisters, who curl into submissive positions or flee, but they steal food from the queen herself, their very own mother.但是,在哥斯达黎加黄蜂却恰好相反。雄蜂不但围攻雌蜂,还从蜂王那里偷食物,蜂王可是他们的亲生母亲啊!雌蜂只得缩成一团或逃跑。These wasps live in a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Whereas wasp colonies in temperatezones can only reproduce for a brief period in the summer, these colonies can mate year round. Thus, a scientist studying these wasps proposes that it’s in the females’ interest to put up with the abuse of their brothers and to let them hang around longer because it increases the males chances of mating with queens from other nests, which makes the colony more biologically fit.这类黄蜂居住在哥斯达黎加的雾林中。温带黄蜂只在夏天很短的一段时间繁衍后代,而这种黄蜂终年交配。研究这类黄蜂的科学家推断,雌蜂对雄蜂的放任自流是忍辱负重,为其它蜂巢的蜂王制造更多交配机会,顺应物种繁衍。 /201303/229875

Science and Technolgy科技Foie-gras production论鹅肝How much is too much?多少是个度Why some duck livers are delicious, and others nasty为什么有的鹅肝是珍馐,有的却让人恶心FOIE GRAS is one of the most controversial dishes on earth. To protagonists, it is simply the finest foodstuff that exists. To those opposed, it is a product of cruelty that is not far short of criminal. The overfeeding of ducks and geese, so that their livers bloat to between six and ten times their normal size and take on a buttery consistency valued by gourmets, exploits the ability of these birds to store large amounts of calorie-rich fat, which was needed to propel them on the long migrations that their wild ancestors would routinely have undertaken. The moral argument over the way foie gras is produced (by feeding the birds with grain, through a tube or a funnel) turns on whether this is merely the permissible exaggeration of a natural inclination, or is tantamount to abuse. Intriguingly, a newly published piece of research on foie-gras production suggests the quality of the product depends on exactly the same distinction.鹅肝是这世上最富争议的食物之一。持鹅肝的人说它是最美的珍馐;而反对者则认为制作鹅肝与犯罪无异。鸭鹅被过度灌食后,肝脏将变为正常水平的6至10倍并呈现出美食家所推崇的黄油状,肝脏贮存脂肪的能力被充分挖掘。鸭鹅的祖先需要定期长途迁徙,而这些脂肪可以为其提供充足的能量。制作鹅肝*(用管子或漏斗对鸭鹅灌饲谷物)涉及一个道德问题:这种做法究竟是在可接受的范围内将动物自身的功能发挥至极致,还是一种虐待行为。有意思的是,最近发表的一篇关于制作鹅肝的研究认为,鹅肝的质量取决于这一问题。From the chefs point of view, one of the disturbing things about foie gras is how variable it is. Some livers, when cooked, retain their fat and thus their rich flavour. Others lose fat when heated and end up tasting terrible. To try to work out why, Caroline Molette, a biologist at the University of Toulouse, did some experiments. Her results, just published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, suggest that the difference is whether the liver in question is truly healthy or not.在厨师看来,鹅肝的麻烦事之一是质量参差不齐。有些肝脏烹饪后还保留着脂肪、油腻感十足。有些肝脏在加热后脂肪就没了,相当难吃。为了搞清楚其中缘由,法国图卢兹大学(University of Toulouse)的生物学家Caroline Molette进行了实验,并将结果发表于《农业与食品化学杂志》(Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry)。她认为其中差别在于所用肝脏健康与否。Dr Molette and her colleagues raised 150 male mule ducks (a cross between Pekin and Muscovy ducks that is often used to produce foie gras) for 13 weeks in standard poultry-house conditions and then transferred them into individual enclosures. For a further 12 days the birds were fattened up with a mash of grain and flour—the usual procedure for enlarging their livers. They were then slaughtered, their livers removed, and those livers immediately trimmed of their blood vessels and chilled for six hours.Molette士与其同事将150只雄性杂交鸭(北京鸭与疣鼻栖鸭的杂交种,常用于生产鹅肝)在家禽饲养场标准条件下养殖13周,然后转入单独的笼子中。在之后的12天,用谷物和面粉的混合物灌饲鸭子——这是让肝脏变大的常用步骤。然后处死鸭子,取肝脏,快速剔除血管,冷藏六小时。So far, so normal. But instead of cooking the whole things, Dr Molette removed a 200-gram sample from each liver (an average liver weighed 550 grams) and put the rest in cold storage. She then placed each sample into a jar with a bit of salt and pepper, and cooked it for an hour. As she expected, some livers released a lot of fat when cooked while others released little. Armed with this information, she was able to turn her attention back to the uncooked sections of the livers and see if she could find any systematic chemical differences between them.到此阶段,一切正常。然而Molette 士并没有使用整个肝脏,而是从每份肝脏(均重550克)中取200克作为样品,其余冷藏。她将每个样品分别放置在罐子中,加入少许盐和胡椒,烹饪半小时。正如她所料,烹饪时有些肝脏释放出大量脂肪,而有些却不是。获得这一信息后,她就将目光转向至还没处理的那部分肝脏,她想知道这二者之间是否存在系统性化学差异。Using a combination of electrophoresis (which sorts proteins according to their size and electrical properties) and mass spectrometry (which sorts fragments of those proteins according to their weight), she was able to do just that. The upshot was that the fat-retaining livers were rich in a variety of proteins known to help the body digest and store food. In the fat-shedding livers, by contrast, she found high concentrations of a protein called fatty-acid-binding-protein 4. In a human liver, this would be a marker of disease. Put simply, the fat-retaining livers are healthy while the fat-shedding ones are not.Molette 士使用电泳(根据蛋白质的分子大小和电荷差异,将蛋白质分离)和质谱(根据分子量将蛋白碎片分离)测定来进行实验。结果发现,保留脂肪的蛋白质富含多种有助于人体消化和贮存食物的蛋白质。相比之下,她在没有脂肪的肝脏中发现了一种名为脂肪酸-结合蛋白4的蛋白质,且浓度很高。在人类肝脏中,这种蛋白是一种疾病指示物。简单的说,保留脂肪的肝脏是健康肝脏,而没有脂肪的肝脏不健康。Both sides of the debate, then, are right. Foie-gras production can be a form of abuse but is not necessarily so, for an enlarged liver can still be healthy. The question is, how do you draw the line?所以,讨论双方说的都对。生产鹅肝可以是一种虐待行为,但也可以不是,因为超大肝脏仍然可以是健康的。问题在于,分界线在哪里?Dr Molettes ducks were all treated similarly, and their livers were of more or less the same size (certainly, the fat-shedding ones were not systematically heavier). The search is therefore on for some way to tell in advance which animals will respond positively to extra helpings and which will not. That knowledge would help farmers, gourmets and animal-lovers alike.Molette士的鸭子,处理方法相似,肝脏大小差不多一样(当然,没有脂肪的肝脏总体来说不会更重)。所以,这项研究可以从某种角度提前告诉我们:哪些动物对过度喂食反应良好,哪些不是。这一点也可帮助农民、美食家、以及动物爱好者。 /201210/203567


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